Friday, January 31, 2020
Sns Recruiting Legal and Compliance Issues Essay 1. Introduction The use of social media in the hiring process has important legal ramifications that employers need to be aware of. While the content and postings by job applicants on social network sites is in the public domain, considerable legal problems exist for employers over the use of the obtained information if it infringes upon legally protected areas of privacy. This section discusses compliance issues primarily in the United States and also in Japan. Recently, there has been a lot of publicity over some employers requesting Facebook password and login information from job applicants. While this practice caught the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, the reality is employers have been using social media to investigate job applicants for years. According to a survey conducted in 2011 by Reppler, a social media monitoring service in the US, 91% of the recruiters and hiring managers stated they have used social networking sites to screen prospective employees. And, 69% of these recruiters and hiring managers revealed that they have denied employment to job applicants due to something they found on an applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s social networking site. Employers therefore need to be very cautious when using information that is obtained from social media when making hiring decisions. In litigation happy US, this can be a veritable minefield. Though the technology has outpaced the law, employers should be sure that the information they receive does not lead them to liability under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), or under various state and federal employment discrimination laws. 2. Pre-employment Background Check What is FCRA? FCRA governs pre-screening obtained from outside agencies. This law sets out various requirements and rules for pre-employment background reports, called Consumer Reports. Under the FCRA, employers must provide to job applicants (and employees) a disclosure that consumers report/background check will be performed and the employer should obtain the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s authorization to proceed with the check. Checks include medical, criminal and credit histories etc. FCRA states, among other things, that the most accurate up-to-date information must be used when screening and evaluating an applicant for employment. Companies who conduct their own in-house background checks does not fall under FCRA, but also face risks in crossing legal and ethical boundaries. Both will be discussed below. Importantly, theÃ FCRA requirements do not apply to employers who perform their own background checks. Thus, for example, if the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s own human resources personnel, or if the hiring manager, performs social media research on a job applicant, the FCRA does not apply to those actions. This searching is facilitated by the availability of smart phone applications for this type of research. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which enforces the FCRA, has already warned a few of the companies providing these smart phone applications, but the FTC has not yet determined that an employerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of these smart phone applications is subject to the FCRA. Consequently, employers should be sure to understand the requirements and procedures of the FCRA, and are recommended to consult with an employment attorney. Employers should also be sure to monitor the Ã¢â¬Å"appsÃ¢â¬ they are using to learn whether the FTC has decided about a certain smart phone application. As the law evolves so must an employerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. 3. Privacy and Anti-Discrimination Laws The topic of privacy is much more volatile. First letÃ¢â¬â¢s discuss from the job applicant perspective. Some argue that the applicant has surrendered the right to privacy by putting this information out there on a public forum and that they should be mindful of what they post. Some describe as akin to putting out your garbage out on the street. You have given up reasonable expectation of privacy and anyone is free to go through it. Most people would find that quite intrusive; especially if someone were to come across personal photos, and other effects, even worse, factor their findings into an employment decision. Others say that an applicant has a reasonable expectation of privacy and personal information should not be viewed or considered. Whatever your position on the matter, consider the purpose for making such a query. Is it in search of information that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be found during a high-quality interview and testing process? Is it job-related or just a quick open-ended sea rch to discover if the applicant meets one particular personÃ¢â¬â¢s standard of decency? Employers must therefore pay very close attention to privacy and anti-discrimination laws. For years, employers have been counseled not to invade employee privacy and not to base any employment decisions on Ã¢â¬Ëprotected characteristicsÃ¢â¬â¢. By reviewing social networking profiles and information, employers are learning about job applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ religious beliefs, marital status, family relationships, race,Ã ethnicity, medical conditions, and other information that cannot be used to make an employment-based decision Ã¢â¬â protected characteristic information that is considered Ã¢â¬Å"taboo.Ã¢â¬ As a result, employers must take care when performing such research. Ultimately, should a discrimination claim arise, the employer will have the burden of proof to demonstrate that the decision to reject a job applicant was based on a legitimate non-discriminatory reason. Once an employer reviews a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s online profile, a court will assume you are aware of that personÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"protected characteristicsÃ¢â¬ that are often part of their online postings. But what if a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s profile suggests that he or she may not be appropriate for the position or even shows a lack of candor about their background or abilities? Here are a few such scenarios: * A female candidate has numerous postings on her Facebook account about her Ã¢â¬ËdogÃ¢â¬â¢ of an ex-husband who constantly skips his time with their children, causing her to miss work at her current job. * An applicant has applied for a job that requires heavy lifting and a lot of walking but whose online profiles reveals that he uses a cane. * Or postings of pictures of a job applicant getting drunk and acting stupid, or comments that reveal ignorance or bigotry. Wise counsel advises treat it the same way you would if you had gained the knowledge via the interview or in a resume. Similarly, certain applicants may allege discrimination if the employer subjects them to additional scrutiny because they have an Ã¢â¬Å"Internet presenceÃ¢â¬ or holds them to a higher standard while viewing and considering the information as opposed to those applicants who do not have social networking profiles. One practical method or work around being suggested is to only allow someone who is not involved in the hiring of the specific position to be the person who conducts the social media background check. Then, when the social media background check is completed, that person can summarize the job-related information that may be helpful in considering the applicant. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to make no mention of the Ã¢â¬Å"protectedÃ¢â¬ information (race, religion, medical condition, etc.) that would otherwise get the employer into trouble. This way, the hiring manager, or ultimate decision-maker, receives only the job-related information, and can demonstrate that the information unknown to him or her had nothing to do with the decision to hire another candidate. Furthermore, before the job opening is even posted, employers should be clear about what they are reallyÃ looking for in a social media background check, and whether it is necessary for the particular position. For example, the importance and extent of a social media background may depend on the position the company needs to fill (for example, a CFO position versus a seasonal stockroom employee). Certainly, employers should doing enough pre-hiring due diligence to avoid potential claims of negligent hiring, but they must balance those concerns with finding out information that exposes them to liability for discrimination. 4. Evolving Legislation Landscape As reported earlier in this section, some employers are reported to be going further than just simple web surfing to research job candidates. Some have started to ask job applicants to provide the company with their Facebook username and password, and/or to require applicants to login to their Facebook accounts during an in-person interview. This situation has prompted legislative movements in the US this year. Senators Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) and Charles E. Schumer (D-NY) requested the US Department of Justice (DOJ) to determine if these employer requests violate the federal Stored Communications Act (SCA) or the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). They also asked the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to determine whether employers who request login/password information are violating anti-discrimination statutes. State legislators, including those in California, Illinois, Maryland and New Jersey, have also jumped on the bandwagon and have introduced legislation that aims to prohibit this practice. For example, in California, on March 27, 2012 Senator Leland Yee, (D-SF), introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"Social Media Privacy ActÃ¢â¬ (SB 1349) to the legislature. Senator YeeÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal would add new sections to the California Labor Code and Education Code prohibiting private and public colleges, universities, and employers from Ã¢â¬Å"requiring, or formally requesting in writing, a student or an employee, or a prospective student or employee, to disclose the user name or account password for a personal social media account, or to otherwise provide the institution or employer with access to any content of that account.Ã¢â¬ While this piece of legislation is considered simple, and will need to be refined, the law is attempting to catch up. In general, employers should think twice, andÃ consult an employment attorney, before establishing a practice of requiring employees and applicants to turn over login information. And, though the law is evolving in this specific area, employers should understand that such a practice might have many Ã¢â¬Å"non-legalÃ¢â¬ ramifications, like, the company losing talented employees and/or potential employees who refuse to give access to social media login credentials. Furthermore, such policies may lead to lower employee morale and distrust. 5. Japan As in the US, there are similar risks for employers and recruiters crossing ethical and legal boundaries when using personal information as part of the hiring process. Stringent local privacy data laws have been enacted in Japan (Act on the Protection of Personal Information April 1 2005) but as in the US, a gap between technology between new and evolving realities of the internet and the existing law. So companies do face a risk here although it is recognized that resort to litigation is less here than in the US, and that recruitment using SNS is not being as embraced by companies here in Japan. Under the PPI Act companies or business operators having acquired personal information are required to promptly notify the person of the purpose of utilization. But as in the US the legal situation regarding social medial is also a legal grey area and will remain so specific legislation is enacted. The tricky balancing act between a right to personal privacy and a right to conduct an investigation or recruiting; helping the selection of a fitting candidate, and protect against negligent hiring claims. There are some guidelines and limits to what a recruiting company may do, but companies would be well advised to consult with local attorneys and to consider developing their own social media policy 6. Final Comment on Compliance There are several moving parts to the whole Internet, social media, recruiting, screening dynamic; many of which have yet to be defined. Social media related law is evolving. So the debate rages onÃ¢â¬ ¦but without a doubt, the use of the Internet and social networking sites related to employment and hiring decisions will be finding its way into courts more and more in the not too distant future.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Pearl Sydenstricker Buck, 1892 - 1973 Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker was born on June 26, 1892, in Hillsboro, West Virginia. Her parents, Absalom and Caroline Sydenstricker, were Southern Presbyterian missionaries, and were stationed in China. Pearl was the fourth of seven children (and 1 of only 3 who would live until adulthood). Buck was born in the U.S. so she could be a natural U.S. citizen. The Sydenstrickers lived in Chinkiang (Zhenjiang), in Kiangsu (Jiangsu) province. Pearl's father spent much time away from home, traveling in the Chinese countryside in search of Christian converts. Pearl's mother ministered to Chinese women in a dispensary she created. >From childhood, Pearl spoke both English and Chinese. She was taught mainly by her mother and a Chinese tutor, Mr. Kung. Though in 1900 the family returned to the US to continue their lives. In 1910, Pearl enrolled in Randolph-Macon Woman's College, in Lynchburg, Virginia, and graduated in 1914. Although she wanted to stay in US, she returned to China after graduation when she heard that her mother was extremely sick. In 1915, she met John Lossing Buck and they were married in 1917. (The marriage was very unhappy, but it lasted for 18 years.) They immediately moved to Nanhsuchou (Nanxuzhou) in Anhwei (Anhui) province. This is where Pearl gathered poverty stricken material that she would later use in The Good Earth and other stories about China. The Bucks' first child, Carol, was born in 1921, but was born with PKU. (A genetic disorder in which the body lacks the enzyme necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine. Left untreated, the disorder can cause brain damage and progressive mental retardation as a result of the accumulation of phenylalanine and its breakdown products.) The child became extremely retarded. Then, because of a uterine tumor found during the delivery, Pearl had a hysterectomy. In 1925, she and her husband adopted a baby girl, Janice. >From 1920 to 1933, Pearl and Lossing made lived in Nanking (Nanjing), on the campus of the Nanking University, where both had teaching jobs. In 1921, Pearl's mother died and shortly after her father moved in with the Bucks. The tragedies which Pearl suffered through out her life reached a climax in March, 1927. In the terrible even called the "Nanking Incident." In a confusing battle involving parts of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist troops, Communist forces, and assorted Ã ¡Ã §warlordsÃ ¡Ã ¨, several Westerners were murdered. The Bucks escaped and had an extremely long day hiding, but were finally rescued by American gunboats.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
COURSEWORK QUESTION: a) (i) What is Hajj? (ii) Describe and explain why a Muslim would take part in Hajj and what this involves  b) (i) Explain the meaning and significance of the events of Hajj for a Muslim. (ii) What difficulties might there be for a Muslim performing Hajj? (iii) How might participating in Hajj affect the life of a believer?  c) Ã¢â¬Å"A true pilgrimage is really a journey within.Ã¢â¬ Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Islam in your answer.  A (i)Hajj is the pilgrimage to Makkah, a Muslim-only city. Tourists arenÃ¢â¬â¢t welcome to Makkah; Hajj is for Muslims to get closer to God and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t meant to be a tourist attraction. It is the duty of every healthy and financially stable Muslim to complete Hajj once in their lifetime. It is a deeply spiritual journey for the millions of Muslims who complete Hajj every Muslim year, between 8 and 13 Dhul-Hijjah Ã¢â¬â the final month. Some Muslims may prefer to visit Makkah on a pilgrimage at another time in the year, but this is not considered as important as Hajj, and is called Umrah. Because so many Muslims want to experience Hajj for the first time, those who have done it before often do Umrah instead. Hajj is the fifth of the five pillars of Islam; the basis of the religion. It is meant for the sane and mature Muslim mind, and it is usually considered an honour to die during oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Hajj, as it is widely believed burial in the city of Makkah will bring Muslims clo ser to their God, and is a good indication of their dedication to Islam. A (ii)Hajj is widely considered essential in order to be a devout Muslim. It is one of the five pillars of Islam which are the biggest and main requirements of the religion. It is considered that Hajj is something of a ticket to heaven in the afterlife. The pilgrimage is to show ones self to Allah, and let him be the judge of character. With a good Hajj comes a peaceful afterlife and paradise. It is not just a physical practice, for true meaning a pilgrim must enter a whole new mindset and way of living, at least for the days of Hajj. This was of living is called Ihram, and is the first obligatory rite of Hajj. All men must wear two white unhemmed sheets so that all look alike, and wealth, age and status in general is not even considered. Whilst in Ihram, Muslims should not argue, swear, kill (even insects!) or participate in a sexual relationship even accompanied by husband or wife. Ihram creates an equilibrium and purity for Hajj. It unites every pilgrim and crates a pure mental canvas solely ready to think about nothing but God. The physical part of Hajj is all about recreating significant and very old events in Islam. First the pilgrims all run or walk quickly around the KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah seven times, if close enough they will touch or kiss it. They then pray close to the KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah, near Maqam Ibrahim. Next the Muslims rush between Marwah and Safa, two hills; seven times. The hills are linked now by a corridor for convenience and safety. After doing this, the pilgrims must make their way to the plain of Arafat, around 20km from Makkah. The pilgrims stand under the sun from midday until sunset praying to Allah, and asking for forgiveness. After this the pilgrims go to Muzdalifah to pray, collect stones and camp overnight. In the morning the pilgrims go to Mina to throw seven stones at three walls. After stoning the walls pilgrims make a sacrifice, often through companies nowadays. The sacrificed animal is the either frozen for future use or given to the poor Muslim community to eat. Men then shave their heads, and women cut off a lock of hair, usually a small amount; a few centimetres or a quarter. Muslims are then allowed to exit Ihram, changing into their normal clothes. They camp at Mina for three nights, and then return to Makkah to walk around the KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah once again. They then drink water from the ZamZam well and their Hajj is complete. They are then a male Hajji, or a female Hajjah. B (i)Carrying out the actions of Hajj is not meaningful without a proper understanding for the ideas behind each procedure. It is all about representing the past and having empathy for Muhammad (PBUH), Ibrahim his son IsmahÃ¢â¬â¢il and others. The KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah is a cube-shaped building supposedly first constructed for God by the first man Adam. It was washed away in NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s time, but Ibrahim and his son IsmahÃ¢â¬â¢il rebuilt it. It is covered in a black cloth called kiswah with verses of the QuÃ¢â¬â¢ran stitched into it. The KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah is rebuilt on the same foundations by the same method when it needs to be, and the cover is re-made every year, after it is cut up and given to some lucky pilgrims as a memento of their journey. The KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah is the very first house of God and many prophets have visited it. It is for this reason that pilgrims feel such closeness and representation to God when they visit it during Hajj. Tawaf is the circling of the KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah seve n times. To begin, the pilgrims can kiss the Black Stone al-hajar-al-aswad or just raise their hands towards it (on the east corner of the courtyard) and recite a prayer. After this the Pilgrims rush around the KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah seven times to represent the fact that their lives revolve around God. It is the first thing that the pilgrims do when they arrive in Makkah. Tawaf is the second rite of Hajj, after Ihram, mentioned earlier. The second event is called the saÃ¢â¬â¢i, where pilgrims rush between the hills Marwah and Safa, to show perseverance and patience. This is what IbrahimÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Hajar did as she desperately searched for aid as her and her thirsty son came close to death in the desert. This part of Hajj can be very tiring and difficult under the blazing sun, despite there being a modern corridor built especially for saÃ¢â¬â¢i. HajarÃ¢â¬â¢s patience was rewarded by God with a spring of water that appeared at her son IsmahÃ¢â¬â¢ilÃ¢â¬â¢s feet, which was named the ZamZam well; today it is in the courtyard of the great Mosque in Makkah. SaÃ¢â¬â¢i is not a compulsory part of Hajj but is usually included in the pilgrimage, and has a deep meaning. The pilgrims travel to Mina, a city of tents near the plain of Arafat. In Ihram, the Muslims are united and equal; they sleep side by side often grouped only by language if anything. All of the pilgrims sleep in tents in their Ihram clothes, poor and rich sleep aside each other as the devout, proud and fellow Muslims of Hajj. The following day the pilgrims travel to Mount Arafat for the most important part of Hajj, where they stand before Allah and ask forgiveness for all of their sins. This is the third obligatory rit e of Hajj. Mount Arafat is also known as the Ã¢â¬ËMount of MercyÃ¢â¬â¢ and is supposed to be where God forgave Adam and Eve for their sins and reunited them, after previously separating them for wrongdoing. Here the Muslims stand before God, the wuquf. The pilgrims stand from midday to sunset praying, weeping and meditating, all under the searing Saudi sun. The afternoon of wuquf is purely concentrated on Allah, and some pilgrims have to rush to make the stand, as without it their Hajj is invalid. Everyone is expected to stand alone and analyse every wrong doing individually, and pray to Allah for forgiveness for their sins. In this rite, repent is essential, and if pilgrims are truly sorry for their sins, it is said they will be completely purified and forgiven by Allah, and can start again, as pure as the day they were born. It is an unforgettable experience and is savoured by every pilgrim. After wuquf, pilgrims travel to camp in Muzdalifah in time for prayers in the evening. Here they usually collect 49 pebbles for the ramy al-jamarat (stoning of the devil) the following day. In 2004 Saudi authorities got rid of the pillars and replaced them with long walls, to make the stoning the devil process easier and therefore safer. Hund reds of people have died in the large crowds all trying to get a good shot at the pillars. On the first day of the process, after a night in Muzdalifah, the first wall is stoned 7 times. The following days each of the three walls has to be stoned 7 times for two consecutive days. This means 49 pebbles are required, but if the pilgrims miss any shots they may need at least 21 extra pebbles to stone all three walls 7 times the following day. This seems like a strange ritual when no background is supporting it, but there is good meaning. Ibrahim was told by God one day he had to sacrifice his son IsmahÃ¢â¬â¢il. Ibrahim made his way to the place of sacrifice, abiding AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s instruction, after consulting his son who told him to do what he had to. On the way the devil appeared before him first to try and tempt him not to sacrifice his son, and the angel Gabriel, the messenger of God told him to Ã¢â¬Å"pelt himÃ¢â¬ . Ibrahim threw 7 pebbles at the devil and it disappeared. It soon reappeared along the way, this time representing the temptation of Hajar to stop her husband sacrificing her son to God, and Gabriel told Ibrahim to Ã¢â¬Å"pelt himÃ¢â¬ again. He did what he was told and threw 7 stones at the devil who once again disappeared. The devil appeared a third time along the road, to tempt IsmahÃ¢â¬â¢il to avoid being sacrificed. GabrielÃ¢â¬â¢s order to Ã¢â¬Å"pelt himÃ¢â¬ was followed by Ibrahim, and the devil then disappeared for the final time. IbrahimÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty and resistance to the devil was rewarded by God when Ibrahim was told to stop as he prepared to kill his son. He was told by God to sacrifice a ram instead, and IbrahimÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance to temptation paid off. Ramy al-jamarat shows the pilgrim Ã¢â¬â¢s dedication to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes, and rejection to the temptations of the devil. Most Muslims make a sacrifice after stoning the devil, to recreate IbrahimÃ¢â¬â¢s experience as closely as possible. Because there are so many pilgrims who want to make a sacrifice, there are special companies, who make it on their behalf and feed the poor. What cannot be used immediately to feed the poor Muslim community is frozen and used later. After making a sacrifice, male pilgrims have their heads shaven by a person who is not in Ihram and women have usually around an inch cut off. Pilgrims usually change into their normal clothes and do a single Tawaf; this is the fourth obligatory rite of Hajj. After doing this single Tawaf the Muslims are now officially Hajjis or Hajjahs as a female. They can then return home but most choose to stay and visit other places such as Medina, where the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was buried. B (ii)There are many factors to prevent Muslims going to Hajj. It is said Allah excuses these factors. It is intention or niyyah that counts with the pilgrimage, and when there is something to prevent Muslims from attending it, they will be excused by Allah. The most common circumstance is poverty. There are around 1.4 billion Muslims in the world, and many live in poverty. Lots of Muslims will save up most of their life to do Hajj, and by the time they have enough money to go, they are of old age and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t physically able. In this case the Muslim can pay another existing Hajji to attend on their behalf, or donate their savings for Hajj to charity. If they do this they will be blessed as fully as if they had completed Hajj themselves. For those who canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford Hajj, they can donate their available savings for Hajj to charity. They will receive the full Hajj benefits also. If a Muslim passes away on their way to carry out Hajj, they will receive the full blessing also, they have died making a commitment to their religion, this shows devotion and niyyah if anything does! Of course there are difficulties that could occur during Hajj. Because around two million pilgrims undergo Hajj every year, and are all dressed in near identical garments, it is very likely that groups will be separated for the period of Hajj. This may seem like a panicking time but Muslims in Ihram will be very sympathetic and helpful with each other in such circumstances, and probably take on new members into their travel groups. The overwhelming feeling of closeness to God on Hajj is enough to eliminate any feelings of worry for the meantime anyhow, so separation doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cause much of a fright. Those unfortunate enough to die during Hajj are proud. It is a blessing to be buried in or near Makkah, close to God. Passing away making commitments to Islam is an honour, and a will is usually written before leaving for Hajj anyway. For those who fear the physical strain of Hajj, or are encouraged not to repeat the journey if they have already, Umrah is the lesser pilgrimage which can be carried out all year round. It involves the seven rotations of the KaÃ¢â¬â¢bah (Tawaf), the SaÃ¢â¬â¢i (Between Marwah and Safa) and a halq or taqsir; which is to cut the hair. Taqsir is shortening hair; halqis the complete head shave. B (iii)Hajj creates equilibrium, and a sympathetic atmosphere among the pilgrims who share the highs and lows of the journey. For most, the journey strengthens and confirms their commitment to Islam. After Hajj, a Muslim is more likely to be more courteous to people in general, and more at ease with life. Once a good Hajj is completed, the afterlife should be more peaceful and happy. Some Muslims like the experience of the pilgrimage so much they move to a Muslim country if they do not live in one already, as they like the convenience and feeling of togetherness and empathy. Hajj strengthens the belief of many Muslims, and if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t a very good Muslim before Hajj, they might feel the need to be more committed to their faith, and practice Islam more regularly. Although for most the pilgrimage of Hajj is a blessing experience, some may have felt let down and disengaged during the journey. For those who could not get into a good Ihram, or feel true belief in God on the mount of mercy; their belief in Islam and Allah may have been hindered. C To me, this statement means that although all of the processes of a pilgrimage are physical, the true idea is the thoughts within the pilgrimÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and the intention, empathy and symbolism of what they are doing in the pilgrimage. The vast majority of Hajjis find the sacred journey to Makkah nourishing and feel they have found forgiveness from Allah. As they travel around the different rites of Hajj they cherish the experience and remember the meaning of each process, going back as far as the time of Adam and Eve. They enter a new realm as they stand before God on the Mount of Mercy, are unable to hold in their tears and are swept with emotion. On the other hand, Hajj is purely a physical process for some pilgrims. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t supposed to be, but some canÃ¢â¬â¢t get into the frame of mind which is intended during the pilgrimage. The journey is supposed to be emotional, deeply thoughtful and soul cleansing. To some Muslims, their belief may be slightly hampered by the fact they struggle to get into a real Ihram. They will get their moneyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth on the trip and see people from all different cultures following the same rituals, but not feel truly engaged in the experience. Some people might argue that if you go on Hajj, and carry out the same processes as the prophets did, that is adequate in displaying your devotion to Allah and Islam. Some may say the fact that so much is physically required of them in Hajj, that alone shows they are a devout Muslim. Personally, I fully agree with the statement, because I would say that Hajj is a journey to Makkah to carry out the rites, and a true Hajj is a deep and thoughtful journey not only to Makkah, but to the bottom of a pilgrimÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. Although carrying out Hajj is a blessing experience cherished by Muslims, it is not truly meaningful unless they feel a certain dedication and spiritual enrichment on their journey.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Comparing the Use of Images in The Other Wife and The Story of an Hour The Other Wife and The Story of an Hour are two short stories both seemingly similar and contrasting in different ways. In ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s story we see that Louise Mallard reveals her ironically natural feeling of joy and freedom following the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s sensation of freedom is conveyed through the use of vivid natural images and color. While in ColetteÃ¢â¬â¢s story the two female protagonists contrastingly suffer from repression while the other practices freedom and liberty. These contrasting feelings are conveyed by the usage of various color images. Both Chopin and Colette address the theme of freedom and liberty from male control throughÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Additionally, ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s use of auditory images such as peddlers Ã¢â¬Ëcrying his waresÃ¢â¬â¢ and people singing down in the streets portrays LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling of freedom and her awakening of a realization. The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization of careless sounds giv es a sense of life and a sound of liberty. The Ã¢â¬Ëmonstrous joyÃ¢â¬â¢ Louise is feeling in her reflects and reveals what a difficult and unpleasant life she had been experiencing. Similarly, in The Other Wife ColetteÃ¢â¬â¢s exploitation of natural images gives a sense of freedom from male control. Like Chopin, the window is used as an important symbol which represents the idea of freedom and a fresh start, as well as a stirring of new feelings. The story begins where Alice is forced and dragged away from where she wants to have lunch. Marc physically forces her away from the window where they would have a view of the beautiful bay. Looking at a deeper level, the force of male control literally drags Alice away from the tranquility and freedom of the bay. She is taken away from the window, which is another source of freedom. On the other hand, we are able to notice MarcÃ¢â¬â¢s wife who is relaxed sitting by the bay. After her divorce with Marc she has the freedom without any male controlling her own actions. The image of wind represents careless freedom; the way in which MarcÃ¢â¬â¢s ex-wife is laid back andShow MoreRelated Comparing Awakenings in Chopins The Storm and The Story of an Hour1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComparing Awakenings in Chopins The Storm and The Story of an Hour As a forerunner of the modern feminist movement, Kate Chopin explored bold new characterizations of her female subjects. Chopin is famous for her progressive depiction of the female characters in her stories. Two such stories, The Storm and The Story of an Hour, examine and refute the long held ideal of the subservient wife. The Storm, written in 1898 but not published until later because of its provocative contentRead MoreThe Story Of An Hour And Still I Rise1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComparative Texts How do Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of a HourÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Still I RiseÃ¢â¬ express the problems faced by women? Both texts express some of the struggles faced by the protagonist woman in their retrospective time periods. Ã¢â¬ËStill I RiseÃ¢â¬â¢ is very empowering and mirrors AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢s own struggles with her lack of freedom. and how the strength of women will allow her to be treated as equal. However, Ã¢â¬ËThe Story of an HourÃ¢â¬â¢, conveys its message of the oppression faced by women in a more subtle manner. It discussesRead MoreStylistic Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Story of an Hour Authors of literary work have always employed stylistic devices to pass their message, Kate Chopin was no exception. She employs a number of styles in her book, the story of an Hour. Just like any author she achieves storytelling in a simple and straight forward manner. Some of the stylistic devices she uses are: description, internal monologue, authorial intrusion contrast, figurative expressions, symbolism among others. This paper discusses the use of stylistic featuresRead MoreA Comparison Of The PoeThe Raven And Ligeia1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa dark gothic writer. His stories and poems are filled with mystery, love, horror, and a melancholy vibe. The symbols found in PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ creates an atmosphere of doom, in Ã¢â¬Å"Ligeia the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts show a possibility of drug abuse, these show the commonalities and differences of Edgar A. Poe reoccurring themes of pain of love, loss, and addiction. Comparing both Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ËLigeiaÃ¢â¬ there are many similarities and differences throughout the stories. First, in Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ theRead MoreStereotypes And Gender Roles Of Women Essay1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages A stereotype can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.Ã¢â¬ Stereotypes are preconceived notions about a group of people. Gender roles are Ã¢â¬Å"the public image of being a particular gender that a person presents to others.Ã¢â¬ These roles are also known as the social norms that dictate the types of behaviors that are deemed acceptable, appropriate or desirable for people of the two genders. Both stereotypes and gender roles of womenRead MoreRay Bradbury Compare And Contrast Essay903 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesComparing and Contrasting Characteristics Ray BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s creation of character Montag in Fahrenheit 451 mirrors his own personal fears, social expectations, and importance of relations. Fahrenheit 451 is split up into 3 characteristics that the author, Ray Bradbury and the main character, Guy Montag share, bringing them to show their most common interestsÃ¢â¬ ¦ their love for book. They are willing to go to the fullest extinct for their passion without letting anything get in their way and taking allRead More Hemingway Style Analysis Essay1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmillions of people as his writing style set him apart from all other authors. Many conclusions and parallels can be derived from Earnest Hemingways works. In the three stories I review, ?Hills Like White Elephants?, ?Indian Camp? and ?A Clean, Well-lighted Place? we will be covering how Hemingway uses foreigners, the service industry and females as the backbones of these stories. These techniques play such a critical role in the following stories that Hemi ngway would be unable to move the plot or characterRead MoreAlfred Stieglitz : Pioneer Of Modern Art Essay1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSome of the other members of this group were other well-known photographers, such as Edward J. Steichen, Gertrude Kasebier and Clarence H. White. It was intended on focusing on the visual aspect of photography instead of the technical knowledge of camera users. Eventually some of the members of this group would later turn away from Stieglitz because of his unconventional techniques and methods. Ã¢â¬Å"Stieglitz did not like the traditional notions of aesthetics, at first wanting to use photographyRead MoreEssay on Salman Rushdies Midnight Children1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbinary by using a different kind of narrative and play of words put him in the likes of American prodigies like Thomas Pynchon. Rushdie has marinated each line of his story with a web of words, abundance of allusions and a chutney of twists and turns. MidnightÃ¢â¬â¢s Children is a story that refers to the children born within an hour of midnight on August 15th, 1947, when Independent India was born. The novel itself describes the history of Saleem SinaiÃ¢â¬â¢s life and origins; and because of his oddlyRead MoreNIGHT OF THE SCORPION1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessuffering in contrast to her own selfless attitude. 4. It is a narrative poem, i.e., it is told as a story. 5. First person is used (I sawÃ¢â¬ ¦I ateÃ¢â¬ ¦) at the start as it is told from a personal reflection-something that really happened. However he does not give his own feelings or reactions to what happens. He is merely the narrator. 6. Most of the poem is in the third person as Ezekiel reports on what other people do and say. 7. The focus of the poem keeps shifting thus emphasising the role of the narrator